... the user is no longer asked to enter into a representation of an environment through a visual interface, but instead engages automatically with the artist's intervention by virtue of their bodily proximity within the space. The apparent naturalness of this engagement is facilitated by the mobility and perceived invisibility of the technological interface.
Dada's ... subversive practices in reworking of authority and authorship were one way social norms were pushed and literally at play.
... used participatory play gaming and practice research, and interactivity, to reflect everyday concerns and to unplay, re-skin, and re-write, and, in some cases, actually re-define culture.
play and domesticity, ..., became linked to the very notion of free time.
... this shift in play to domestic space would set the stage for later trends in computer culture where hacking, BBS communication, fan culture, and open software, and online games would become highly domestic forms of play.
games that depict everyday activities such as communication, social negotiation, caring for elements or characters that are part of a game world, or stabilizing precarious situations have become extremely popular with female players.
Sims Online, Everquest, Uru, World of Warcraft / critical play
gamers still play house, reworking paradigms of the status quo by experimenting with artificial identities, self-expressive environments, and humorous scenarios.
... the artists of the Dada movement created toys and puppet shows that mocked, among other things, familial conventions.
... play would not be as popular without the invention of leisure time due to the industrial revolution's separation of the social from the occupational.
in this new culture, games, whether public spectacle(s) or parlor amusement(s), emerged as necessary interaction mediator(s)
draw a straight line and follow
Nam June Paik (1961)
... games, functioning as an ordering logic -- a machine or technology -- for creating social relations, work to distill or abstract the everyday actions of the players into easy-to-understand instruments where context is de-familiarized just enough to allow (the) magic circle of play to manifest itself.
... from example(s) ... it is possible to see how games in and of themselves function as social technologies.
if digital artefacts have truly become a magic circle in which players enter a sanctioned play space, then this culture of play, or play culture, as it is commonly termed, is one in which participants find a space of permission, experimentation and subversion.
play ... a primary indicator of (...) mental growth
play enables children to progress along the developmental sequence from the sensimotor intelligence of infancy to pre-operational thought in the pre-school year to the concrete operational thinking exhibited by primary school children ... ... play also serves important functions in (...) physical, emotional and social development(s)!
a game's mechanics is its message
the introduction of art objects and performance into public spaces, ..., is a way that artists appropriate the cognitive space, of everyday space, and functions in an interventionist fashion.
... artists practicing intervention often have social or political goals, and may seek to open up dialogue by transgressing the boundaries between art and everyday life.
... because games, sports, and festivals are in part an exercise in the identity formation and display of power of kings, the aristocracy, heterosexuals and men, the games of the less powerful are excluded and even ridiculed.
[Marcel Duchamp]: in art there is no such thing as perfection.
When on the other hand you pick up something from an earlier period and adapt it to (y)our own work an approach can be creative. ... the result is not new, but it is new insomuch as it is a different approach.
... after the renaissance, games and artworks concerning play continued to be marginalized as irrational, whimsical parts of culture, unworthy of the advanced scholarship of today.
what if some game(s), and the more general concept of play, not only provides outlets for entertainment, but also functions as means for creative expression, an instrument for conceptual thinking, or as tools to help examine or work through social issues.
... one result was the separation of childhood play from adult experience in a way that made it innocent & pure.
paradign shifts ... a dynamic that models how scientists move from doubt, or even disdain, to consideration and finally acceptance and enthousiasm for new theories,
reveals the rules by which science operates and delineates how, as a system of knowledge, science relies on social and psychological factors.
as we know, time spent on shoes is never wasted.
... while simultaneously dissecting the objects of their original function(s) it playfully transmigrates the object to its own magic circle.
playful procedures and systematic strategems provided keys to unlock the door of the unconsciousness and to release the visual and verbal poetry of collective creativity.
... games as trigger for discussion,
and existing social activist games work largely on that level.
in some cases a game might provide the safest outlet available for exploring devastating problems and conflicts.
[rethinking wargames] engages with the idea of choosing strategies.
... it interrogates the linear trajectory of time intrinsic to games, even with their interactive structure.
critical play(s) -- window(s)
... the games that entertained America from the 1840's to the 1920s offer a fascinating window on the values, beliefs and aspirations of a nation undergoing tremendous changes.